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Learning resources: chapter 6


CHAPTER 06

Section 6.1 - The Physical Symbol System Hypothesis

1. Biographical background
Allen Newell (entry by Gualtiero Piccinini, from the New Dictionary of Scientific Biography)
Allen Newell (entry from Wikipedia)
Herbert Simon (entry from Wikipedia)
Herbert Simon’s autobiography (from nobelprize.org)
A life of the mind: Remembering Herb Simon (memorial from the American Psychological Society)

2. The physical symbol system hypothesis
Physical symbol system (entry from Wikipedia)
Travelling salesman problem (entry from Wikipedia)
Video demonstration of the Travelling salesman problem (from the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications)
Missionaries and cannibals problem (entry from Wikipedia)
Try to solve the Missionaries and cannibals problem yourself
Video demonstration of the Missionaries and cannibals problem (from Udacity)
The computational theory of mind (entry from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Steven Horst)
Computer science as empirical inquiry: Symbols and search (paper by Allen Newell and Herbert Simon, 1976; from Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, 19)
Physical symbol systems (paper by Allen Newell, 1990; from Cognitive Science, 4)
The physical symbol system: Status and prospects (paper by Nils Nilsson, 2007; from 50 Years of AI)

Section 6.2 - From Physical Symbol Systems to the Language of Thought

1. Background
Problem of mental causation (entry from Wikipedia)
Language of thought (entry from Wikipedia)
Mental causation (entry from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Julie Yoo)
Steven Pinker on language and thought (video from TED)
Animation of Steven Pinker on language and the mind (from RSA Animate)
Topic: Language and thought (radio interview with Lera Boroditsky, from PhilosophyTalk at Stanford)

2. The language of thought hypothesis
The computational theory of mind (entry from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Stephen Horst)
The language of thought hypothesis (entry from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Murat Aydede)
The language of thought (entry from the online A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind, by Larry Kaye)
The language of thought (entry from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Matthew Katz)

Section 6.3 - The Chinese Room Argument

1. AI and the Turing test
The Turing test (entry from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Graham Oppy and David Dowe)
Computing machinery and intelligence (paper by Alan Turing, 1950; from Mind, 59)
The Turing test page
Turing test: 50 years later (paper by Ayse Saygin, Ilyas Cicekli, and Varol Akman, 2001; from Minds and Machines, 10)

2. See also section 1.2.

3. The Chinese Room Argument
Chinese Room argument (entry from the MIT Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by John Searle)
Minds, brains, and programs (target paper by John Searle, 1980; from Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3)
Minds, machines and Searle (paper by Stevan Harnad, 1989; from the Journal of Theoretical and Experimental Artificial Intelligence, 1)
a href="http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-room/">The Chinese room argument (entry from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by David Cole)
Chinese room argument (entry from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Larry Hauser)
Animation of the Chinese Room, with discussion (from the Consortium on Cognitive Science Instruction)  

4. The symbol-grounding problem
The symbol grounding problem (paper by Stevan Harnad, 1990; from Physica D, 42)
Solving the symbol-grounding problem: A critical review of 15 years of research (paper by Mariarosaria Taddeo and Luciano Floridi, 2005)
The symbol-grounding problem has been solved: So what’s next? (paper by Luc Steels, 2006)

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