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Arab Dissident Movements 1905–1955

Arab Dissident Movements 1905–1955
4 Volume Hardback Set

£1,400.00

Cambridge Archive Editions
  • Date Published: July 1996
  • availability: Temporarily unavailable - available from TBC
  • format: Multiple copy pack
  • isbn: 9781852076801

£1,400.00
Multiple copy pack

Temporarily unavailable - available from TBC
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About the Authors
  • These four volumes of primary source material contain a detailed study of activist movements and personalities, researched from the British Government archives, relating to twentieth-century subversive groups and individuals in the Middle East. The coverage includes major categories of Arab nationalists and pan-Arabists with aspirations to Arab unity, as well as activists with specific territorial demands and other anti-regime dissidents. The many groups referred to include: Society for Arab Revival (1906); Young Turks (1908); Lebanese Revival (1908); Al-Fatah (1909); Reform Society of Basra; Arab Revolutionary Society (1914); Palestine Arab Party; Todamun al-Akhawi; Druse rebels; Shakib Arslan; the Liberation Society; Iraq Independence Party; Arab BaÕath Movement; Moslem Brotherhood; Omani Revolution Council.

    • Facsimile collections of key documents from archive sources
    • Previously unknown or fragmented material now available in a coherent collection
    • Carefully selected and edited for maximum value to researchers and scholars
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    Product details

    • Date Published: July 1996
    • Format: Multiple copy pack
    • Isbn: 9781852076801
    • Length: 3000 pages
    • Dimensions: 322 x 236 x 296 mm
    • Weight: 7kg
    • Availability: Temporarily unavailable - available from TBC
    • Paper: Printed on acid free paper
    • Binding: Library bindings with gilt finish
    • Resume

      These four volumes of primary source material contain a detailed study of activist movements and personalities, researched from the British Government archives, relating to 20th-century subversive groups and individuals in the Middle East. The coverage includes major categories of Arab nationalists and pan-Arabists with aspirations to Arab unity, as well as activists with specific territorial demands and other anti-régime dissidents.

      The many groups referred to include: Society for Arab Revival (1906); Young Turks (1908); Lebanese Revival (1908); Al-Fatah (1909); Reform Society of Basra; Arab Revolutionary Society (1914); Palestine Arab Party; Todamun al-Akhawi; Druse rebels; Shakib Arslan; the Liberation Society; Iraq Independence Party; Arab Ba'ath Movement; Moslem Brotherhood; Omani Revolution Council.

    • Historical Overview

      From the Editor's Introduction

      This work depicts the famous, the infamous and the more shadowy Arab groups and individuals who were active agents against the status quo of their day. It is not a political history of any one region, but instead attempts to supplement and to raise questions about the usual accounts of events. Leading figures as well as unknown or previously unremarked participants, and organisations both large and small, are traced against the unfolding events of the twentieth century.

      Material falls into four main chronological sequences: the anti-Ottoman agitation to 1918; the anti-British, French and Italian campaigns from 1919-1939; the period of World War Two with various subversive tendencies; and the post-war agitation for self-determination. The arrangement is therefore broadly chronological with material sub-divided firstly as pan-Arabic and pan-Islamic activities, and secondly by regional considerations. This division reflects the two chief threads of the dissident movements in the Arab Middle East from 1905-1955: Arab unity and the notion of a single Arab confederacy which were pursued at least until the creation of the League of Arab States in 1945. The specific, limited regional goals of independence from a foreign power, whether the Ottoman Turks or the British, French or Italian administrations means that the dissidents cease to be dissenters when this goal has been achieved.

      Coverage of some societies and organisations is varied in extent and reflects both the skills and the interests of British Intelligence surveillance, and the level of public attention sought by certain groups as they wax and wane. The most secret anti-regime movements (if successful) will presumably have evaded contact with British officials and may leave little trace in British records. However, by definition political effectiveness suggests a raised profile, and numerous groups appealed directly to British representatives and petitioned officials in London, frequently forwarding leaflets outlining their grievances or aspirations. Some of these organisations flourished for long periods, such as the Moslem Brotherhood, with its numerous branches. Others began openly but were banned or repressed and forced to go underground, for example, the Ottoman Arab Fraternity. The reader is referred to the index of contents for detailed references of the scores of organisations and leaders involved.

      Wherever possible, all territories in the Arab Middle East have been represented, but the elusive nature of regional activists, observed often only at crisis points, and receding from view following either state repression or the creation of a new regime, is necessarily reflected by some gaps in the material. Countries represented herein include: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya (Cyrenaica and Tripolitania), Morocco, Oman, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia.
      Prior to 1905, although there were sporadic gatherings and events, such as the Islamic Revival Congress which took place in Mecca from 1898-99, there were no sustained, organised dissident groups. The set ends in 1955 since 1956 marked the beginning of the end of the British presence in the Middle East, with the Suez crisis, and the start of an era of either self-government for many states or long direct struggles, as in the case of Algeria.

      Finally, it must be stressed that this set is composed of British official records which reflect the continuous monitoring of groups and individuals which were essentially of a clandestine or subversive nature, regardless of their political orientation. It does not, however, address accredited opposition parties or spontaneous public demonstrations.

    • Documentary Importance

      All material has been selected from files at the National Archives, Kew, Surrey, England, chiefly from the following record classes: FO 141: Egypt: Embassy and  Consular Correspondence; FO 195: Turkey: Embassy and Consular Correspondence; FO 371: General Political Correspondence; FO 967: Hijaz: Jeddah: Embassy and Consular; CO 733: Colonial Office: Middle East Correspondence; CAB 27: Cabinet Committee; AIR 23: Overseas Commands: Air Staff Intelligence; HS: Secret Intelligence Service.

      Over 400 pieces were examined, about ninety per cent of which were utilised for this set. A small percentage of the documents are in Arabic, these are generally, but not always, translated. Additionally, a small amount is in French, particularly items emanating from or relating to Egyptian groups.

      Among the items selected for inclusion are several pieces recently released under various government initiatives, such as material from the HS class, opened in 1994, and miscellaneous FO files ( for example in section 4.2.3, material on the dissolution of the Moslem Brotherhood in 1948, previously retained, was opened in 1995). Despite the availability of certain files, other relevant pieces have not been transferred to the PRO at the time of writing, such as notes on "Middle Eastern Renegades", 1945, or apparently not retained at all, as in a piece on "Arab Union Society activities", 1947.

    • Arrangement of Volumes

      CONTENTS OUTLINE

      Some of the principal organisations and individuals appearing in these volumes. (Note: these names are only a small part of the hundreds of movements and persons named in over half a century of intelligence documents.)
      La Ligue de la Patrie Arabe, 1905
      Comité Supérieur National Arabe, 1905
      The Young Turks, 1908
      Emir Chekib Arslan, Beirut and elsewhere, 1908, 1913, 1922, 1931, 1937
      Emir Mustapha Arslan, Beirut, 1908
      Nessib Bey Djumblatt, Beirut, 1908
      Mahmoud Bey Djumblatt, Beirut, 1908
      Union Libanaise, 1908
      Hurriyet (Freedom) Club, Damascus, 1908
      Syrian Central Committee, Paris, 1908
      Egyptian Reform Party, 1908
      Egyptian Nationalist Party, 1908
      Islamic Propaganda and Instruction, Cairo, 1911
      Committee of Union and Progress, Constantinople, 1913
      Reform Club, Beirut, 1913
      Djemil Mardam Bey, Beirut, 1913, 1922; Palestine, 1934
      Basra Arab Reform Committee, 1913
      Mesopotamia Arab Movement, Baghdad, 1914
      Al Ahd Group, Cairo, 1914
      Aziz Ali Bey El-Masri, Cairo, Baghdad, 1914
      Revolutionary Arab Committee, Damascus, 1914
      Kahtan Party, Berne, 1915
      Habib Loftfallah, Cairo, 1915, 1939
      Khalil Pacha Khayat, president of Cercle Syrien, Alexandria, 1916
      Iskander Bey Amoun, former president of Alliance Libanaise, 1916
      Rafik Al Azm, president, Decentralisation Society, Cairo, 1918
      Saad Zagloul, Cairo, 1919-1922
      Senussi Brotherhood, Tripoli, 1918
      Al Ahd al Arabi, Damascus, 1920
      Nadi al Arabi, Damascus, 1920
      Mouvahiddin Islamic Society, 1920
      Talib Bey, Baghdad, 1920
      Akhwan movement, Najd, 1920
      Emir Amin Arslan, Beirut, 1920
      Emir Adel Arslan, Beirut, 1920; Amman, 1921
      Moslem Unification Committee, Berlin, 1922
      Mustafa el Nahas, Cairo, 1921
      Abbas Hilmi, Cairo, 1921
      Adel Arslan, 1921, in Druse Rebellion, 1925
      Istiqlal (Kemalist Secret Society), Damascus, 1921
      Emir Chekib Arslan: secretary, Congress of Opressed Peoples of the Orient, 1922; president, Oriental Club, Berlin, 1922
      Shaikh Rashid Rida, Cairo, Damascus, 1922, 1926
      Jaffar Pasha, Baghdad, 1923
      Iron Hand Society, Damascus, 1922
      Shaikh Ahmed Daud Salah, Damascus, 1922
      Habib Loftfallah, Damascus, 1922
      Esther Fahmy Wissa, Women's Central Committee, Cairo, 1922
      Hizb al Watani, Cairo, 1923; Baghdad, 1933
      Oriental Revolutionary Society, Cairo, 1923
      White Flag Society, Khartoum, 1924; revived Cairo, 1955
      El Ittihad el Sudan, 1924
      Black Hand Society, Cairo, 1925
      Palestine and Syrian Communist Parties, 1925
      Rabta ash-Sharq (Bond of the East), Alexandria, 1923, 1929
      Pan-Islamic Arab Revolutionary Movement (led by Chekib Arslan), Jerusalem, Damascus, 1931
      Hussein ad-Dabbagh's conspiracy against King Abdul-Aziz, Aden, Assir, 1932
      Ibn Rifada's Hijaz Revolt, 1932
      Ihsan Bey el Jabiri, Palestine, 1934
      Moslem Brotherhood (Ikwan el Muslimeen), Cairo, 1936, Palestine, 1938; Cairo, 1942, 1944, 1945; Amman, 1947
      Committee for the Defence of Palestine, 1938
      Societé des Oulémas (Society of Sages) d'Algérie, 1937, 1947
      Habib Bourguiba, leader of Neo-Destour (New Constitution) Party, Tunis, 1945, 1947
      Reda el-Mahdi el-Senoussi, president of Cyrenaican National Front, Benghazi, 1947
      Ikhwan el Hurriyet (Brothers of Freedom), Cairo, 1947
      Hassan el Ouezzani, leader of Democratic Party of Independence, Fez, 1947
      Arab Ba'ath (Revival) Socialist Party, Jerusalem, Damascus, 1949; Amman 1954
      Suppression of Moslem Brotherhood, Cairo, 1948; further activities, Cairo, 1949; Damascus 1950
      Comité de Libération du Maghreb Arabe, Tangiers, 1948
      Revolutionary Command Council, Oman, 1949
      Popular Socialist Party, Baghdad, 1951
      Mouvement Triomphe des Libertés Démocratiques, Algiers, 1952
      Suppression of Moslem Brotherhood, Damascus, 1952; its continuance, Cairo, 1953,1954; Damascus, 1954
      Yemeni Unity Society, Aden, 1952
      Kuwait Democratic League; National Cultural Club, etc., Kuwait, 1954
      Istiqlal Party, Rabat, 1955

  • Editor

    A. Burdett

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