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Essential Equations for Anaesthesia
Key Clinical Concepts for the FRCA and EDA

£37.99

  • Date Published: May 2014
  • availability: Available
  • format: Paperback
  • isbn: 9781107636606

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  • A sound knowledge of equations and their use, derivation and clinical application is an absolute prerequisite for any anaesthetist. As a result, equations are a favourite question topic of examiners, particularly in the viva examinations. Many candidates answer these poorly, losing valuable marks and floundering when they face what they perceive as 'nightmare' questions. This book provides a simple, portable, reference guide to all the equations that candidates may be asked about during their examinations. The content is split into four sections: physics, pharmacology, physiology and statistics. Each equation is clearly explained, derived where necessary, and placed into a clinical context using a worked or clinically relevant example to demonstrate its use. Units and relevant terms are given and, where required, clear, concise diagrams have also been provided to simplify understanding. Written by anaesthetic trainees, this is an essential resource for preparation for the FRCA, EDA and other anaesthetic examinations.

    • Includes all of the equations relevant for the FRCA and EDA, ensuring candidates have all of the information they need in one place
    • Concise explanations aid quick revision
    • All of the equations are applied to clinical practice, giving the content wide-reaching relevance
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    Reviews & endorsements

    '… a worthwhile and enjoyable read, easy to browse through and a good means of revision …' P. J. Venn, British Journal of Anaesthesia

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    Product details

    • Date Published: May 2014
    • format: Paperback
    • isbn: 9781107636606
    • length: 218 pages
    • dimensions: 234 x 156 x 12 mm
    • weight: 0.31kg
    • contains: 10 b/w illus. 24 tables
    • availability: Available
  • Table of Contents

    Preface
    Foreword
    Part I. Physics: Section 1A. Gases:
    1. Boyle's law
    2. Charles' law
    3. Gay–Lussac's law
    4. Avogadro's law
    5. Universal gas equation
    6. Dalton's law of partial pressures
    7. Henry's law
    8. Graham's law of diffusion
    Section 1B. Pressure and Flow:
    1. Pressure and force
    2. Hagen–Poiseuille equation and laminar flow
    3. Reynold's number and turbulent flow
    4. Laplace's law and tension
    5. Bernoulli equation and Venturi effect
    Section 1C. Electricity:
    1. Ohm's law: voltage, current and resistance
    2. Capacitance
    3. Inductance
    4. Work and power
    5. Transformers
    6. Electrical charge
    Section 1D. Other:
    1. Doppler equation and Doppler effect
    2. Beer–Lambert law
    3. Humidity
    4. Natural frequency
    5. Wave equation and ultrasound
    Part II. Pharmacology: Section 2A. Pharmacokinetics:
    1. Bioavailability
    2. Volume of distribution
    3. Clearance
    4. Hepatic clearance
    5. Concentration and elimination
    6. Plasma concentration and compartment models
    7. Loading dose and maintenance dose
    8. Exponential function and rate constant
    9. Half life and context-sensitive half life
    10. Time constant
    11. Rates of reaction
    12. Michaelis–Menten equation
    Section 2B. Pharmacodynamics:
    1. Drug-receptor dissociation constant and affinity
    2. Therapeutic index
    Part III. Physiology: Section 3A. Cardiovascular:
    1. Cardiac output and cardiac index
    2. Stroke volume
    3. Ventricular stroke work and index
    4. Ejection fraction and fractional area change
    5. Coronary perfusion pressure and coronary blood flow
    6. Bazett's formula – QT interval corrected
    7. The Fick principle – cardiac output measurement
    8. The Fick equation – oxygen uptake measurement
    9. Mean arterial pressure
    10. Venous return
    11. Total blood volume
    12. Systemic vascular resistance
    13. Uterine blood flow
    14. Stewart-Hamilton equation
    15. Oxygen delivery
    16. Oxygen extraction ratio
    17. Oxygen content
    18. The dilution principle – measurement of fluid compartment volume
    Section 3B. Respiratory:
    1. Diffusing capacity
    2. Compliance
    3. Bohr equation
    4. Alveolar ventilation equation
    5. Alveolar gas equation
    6. Helium dilution technique
    7. Spirometry: forced expiration
    8. Lung volumes and capacities
    9. Respiratory quotient (and respiratory exchange ratio)
    10. Shunt equation
    11. Pulmonary vascular resistance
    Section 3C. Renal:
    1. Renal filtration fraction
    2. Renal clearance and Cockcroft–Gault formula
    3. Starling's equation – rate of filtration
    4. Fick's law of diffusion
    Section 3D. Cellular, Biochemical and Acid-base:
    1. Osmolality, osmolarity and the osmolar gap
    2. Morse equation and osmotic pressure
    3. Anion gap
    4. Goldman equation
    5. Gibbs–Donnan effect
    6. Nernst equation
    7. pH
    8. pKa
    9. Acid-base compensation simplified
    10. Henderson–Hasselbalch equation
    Section 3E. Neurological:
    1. Cerebral perfusion pressure and intracranial pressure
    2. Intraocular pressure
    Part IV. Statistics:
    1. Binary classification tests and 2x2 tables
    2. Negative predictive value
    3. Positive predictive value
    4. Specificity
    5. Sensitivity
    6. Relative risk
    7. Relative risk reduction
    8. Absolute risk reduction
    9. Accuracy of test
    10. Chi-squared test
    11. Likelihood ratio
    12. Standard error of mean
    13. Standard deviation and variance
    14. Power
    15. Odds ratio
    Appendix:
    1. The international system of units
    2. Units of measurement
    Index.

  • Authors

    Edward T. Gilbert-Kawai, University College London
    Dr Edward Gilbert-Kawai is an Anaesthetic Registrar and the Senior Research Fellow at the Centre of Altitude, Space and Extreme Environment Medicine, University College London, London, UK.

    Marc D. Wittenberg, University College London
    Dr Marc Wittenberg is a Senior Anaesthetic Registrar and Clinical Fellow at NHS England and the BMJ, UK.

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